Биодизель из гидрированных масел
Биодизельное топливо на основе гидрированных (обработанного водородом) растительных или животных масел
Статья Akira Koyama, Ниппон Ойл здесь
Tests of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Diesel Beginning in Tokyo
Earlier in February, Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC), Hino Motors, The Tokyo Metropolitan Government and Nippon Oil Corporation (NOC) started a joint project aimed at commercializing what they are calling bio hydrofined diesel (BHD), a second-generation renewable diesel fuel produced by hydrogenating a vegetable oil feedstock. (Neste Oils's NExBTL renewable diesel is another example of hydrogenating plant or animal oils to produce a diesel fuel. Earlier post.)
Nippon Oil and Toyota have worked jointly on the development of BHD technology since 2005. At the 16th Annual Catalysts in Petroleum Refining & Petrochemicals symposium in Saudi Arabia last November, Dr. Akira Koyama of Nippon Oil presented NOC's findings on the reactivity, distillate yields, evaluation of the fuel (now called BHD) and its applicability as an automotive fuel.
The use of refinery-based hydrogenation processes to produce a synthetic, second-generation renewable diesel is driven by several issues, including some technical considerations over the properties and effects of first-generation fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel (storage, oxidation, possible effect on fuel handling systems).
In its studies, Nippon Oil explored reaction temperatures ranging from 240°C to 360°C, with reaction pressures of 6MPa and 10MPa, and used a common hydrodesulfurization catalyst.
The resulting fuel is aromatics- and sulfur-free, with a high cetane number (101). It also has a higher calorific value (MJ/kg) than biodiesel and conventional petroleum diesel.
The hydrogenated palm oil showed superior oxidation stability in accelerated oxidation testing. It has, however a slightly higher cloud point than palm biodiesel.
In preliminary vehicle testing with a 2.0-liter engine, the hydrogenated palm oil resulted in a 22% decrease in total hydrocarbons, a 15% reduction in CO, and an 11% decrease in PM, but an increase in NOx.
Nippon Oil also performed a lifecycle assessment of hydrogenated palm oil, comparing it to palm biodiesel and petroleum diesel.
Both hydrogenated palm oil and palm biodiesel carry a significantly higher well-to-tank CO2 burden, but since the tank-to-wheel component (using the fuel) is zeroed out for the biofuels, each of the palm oil-based products offers lower total CO2 than petroleum diesel.
In terms of energy efficiencies, Nippon Oil found that while both hydrogenated palm oil and palm oil biodiesel are lower than petroleum diesel, the energy efficiency of hydrogenated palm oil is slightly higher than that of biodiesel.
If this hydrogenated oil is to be used as automotive fuel in the future, we think further study is required regarding the following points. With its high oxidation stability, it should be possible to mix hydrogenated PO with diesel in much higher proportion than the 5% upper limit now observed with FAME, owing to its lower stability and other problems. But then it becomes necessary to address the issue of low-temperature performance. We are planning studies to improve cold flow property of Hydrogenated PO…we are also planning to conduct prolonged endurance tests and to evaluate the oil's effects on car parts.
Palm oil and other vegetable oils (rapeseed, sunflower, soybean, corn, etc.) are used as cooking oils all over the world. if these oils are to be used for automotive fuels, it will probably not happen by getting people to use less for cooking. And if we simply increase cultivation, there is the risk of serious environmental destruction. We need to thoroughly consider how materials are to be secured, also looking at the use of non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha oil.
Two to three buses will participate in the verification tests this year, using a blend of 10% BHD.
On 26 January, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government established a committee to promote carbon reduction within the city of Tokyo, beginning with its 10 Year Project for Carbon Reduction in Tokyo, which seeks the help of private companies and citizens in greatly reducing CO2 emissions. This project is the first phase of a larger project that works together with companies in promoting measures to fight global warming.
At the same time that it is carrying out the project to commercialize BHD, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government is introducing a B5 (5% biodiesel-fatty acid methyl ester) fuel in its city buses, starting in 2007.